Chronological Events of the
Mt. Graham Red Squirrel
(adapted from: Mount Graham Red Squirrel, An Expanded Biological Assessment, Coronado National Forest, February 1988)
9,000-10,000(years ago) -- Pinaleņos isolated from other squirrel populations
during inter-glacial period years before present.
1880's -- The red squirrel was abundant.
Timber harvest began at lower elevations.
1894 -- First scientific red squirrel specimens collected.
1920's -- Lower elevation timber harvest ended. Swift Trail
construction started. Red squirrel "sign" was not abundant.
1933 -- Swift Trail was completed to Old Columbine.
Timber harvest along Swift Trail began.
1935 -- All tree squirrel hunting was suspended statewide
due to perceived low populations.
1940's -- Abert's squirrels were successfully introduced to the
Pinaleņos. There was some concern over
hybridization and competition.
1951-52 -- Red squirrel was uncommon to rare.
Abert's squirrels were widespread.
1958-66 -- Red squirrels were thought to possibly be extirpated.
1960's -- Red squirrels were sighted on West Peak and Blue
Jay Peak by Forest Service Personnel. The road to High Peak/Emerald Peak was completed with firebreaks. Limited timber harvest began along this road and elsewhere in the upper elevations.
Early 1970's -- At least four red squirrel sightings were reported by
Arizona Game and Fish Department and the Forest Service
1973 -- Timber harvest declined as accessible areas
1976 -- The Mt. Graham Red Squirrel was listed as
Group IV - threatened, by Arizona Game and Fish Department. (Group IV:
"species that may be no more scarce than 100 years ago. Restricted
distribution. Susceptible to major
Mid-late 1970's -- At least 12 red squirrel sightings reported by
Arizona Game and Fish Department and Forest Service.
1978 -- Mt. Graham Red Squirrel is listed as Group IV -
threatened and unique wildlife, by Arizona Game and Fish Department.
1979 -- Mt. Graham Red Squirrel was determined to be
a "priority animal" for status determination by Arizona Natural
1980 -- An informal survey was conducted by Arizona
Game and Fish Department. They reported 5 red squirrels.
1981 -- US Fish and Wildlife Service contracted
Arizona Natural Heritage Program to identify all mammals in need of Federal
Mt. Graham Red Squirrel was placed on Regional Foresters list of sensitive species.
began on Mt. Graham.
1982 -- Mt. Graham Red Squirrel was again listed as
Group IV - threatened native wildlife, by Arizona Game and Fish
Graham Red Squirrel identified as 1 of 2 "priority 1" mammals in Arizona by
Arizona Natural History
Program. Mt. Graham Red Squirrel included in Review of Vertebrate Wildlife by U. S.
Fish and Wildlife Service, "an
animal for which a proposal to list as endangered or threatened might, pending
additional biological information, be
appropriate". Request that Mt. Graham be considered as future astrophysical site by
the Smithsonian. Smithsonian
permission to continue astrophysical testing.
1984 -- Status surveys for three Mt. Graham mammals,
including Mt. Graham Red Squirrel was conducted by Arizona Game
Department. Astrophysical site proposal submitted to the FS.
1985 -- "Environmental data report" on proposed
Mt. Graham Astrophysical Site.
1986 -- Mt. Graham Red Squirrel specifically excluded from tree
squirrel hunting season by AZ Game and Fish Dept. Mt.
Squirrel proposed for listing as endangered by U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
conducted. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Mt. Graham astrophysical area
1987 -- Mt. Graham Red Squirrel listed as endangered by U. S.
Fish and Wildlife Service. Second co-operative midden
1988 -- Midden census and red squirrel studies continued.
Legislation was added to the Arizona-Idaho Conservation Act, and
signed into law,
instructing the FS to allow three telescopes to be built on Mt. Graham without further
studies; includes mandate for a program to monitor the red squirrel populations around the
1989 -- Monitoring Program for Mt. Graham Red Squirrel on Mt.
Graham Astrophysical Site was initiated in May but was not
fully implemented until
August. Construction began on the access road to the astrophysical site.
1990 -- Red squirrel population fell to lowest recorded level in
the Spring. Bumper spruce cone crop in the Autumn, squirrel
population recovered to
near 1986 numbers. Construction on telescopes buildings began.
1991 -- Squirrel population continued to increase despite poor
cone crops. Largest recorded population in the Autumn.
1992 -- Squirrel population declined from the record numbers.
Cone crop was very poor for the second year. Construction of
complete. Forest Service builds new campground on Mt. Graham.
1993 -- Squirrel population increased to second highest numbers
since census taking started. Two telescopes were completed,
the third one was
started in December.
1994 -- Squirrel population continued to increase.
Environmental organizations filed a federal lawsuit to halt the construction of
telescope. A permanent injunction restricting construction of the third telescope was
imposed by a US District
University of Arizona appealed the decision but the appeal was denied.
1995 -- Squirrel population dropped slightly in the Spring but
recovered to 1994 numbers in the Fall. Federal Court of Appeals
rejected the U of A
request for a rehearing. Rep. Kolbe introduced legislation to allow for the
construction of the third
telescope. Legislation allowing construction on the third telescope was added to Interior
Appropriations Bill and approved by Congress.
President Clinton vetoed the Bill.
1996 -- The Clark Peak fire started on April 24, 1996.
Construction for the Large Binocular Telescope foundation began on
June 29, 1996.
Red squirrel population dropped due to the poor cone crop and the Clark Peak fire.
1997 to 1998 -- Construction of the Large Binocular Telescope continues. Red squirrel numbers drop.
1999 -- Construction of the Large Binocular Telescope continues. Insect outbreaks begin on Hawk Peak, High Peak and Emerald Cienega. Red squirrel numbers increase slightly.
2004 -- Nuttall complex fire burns 12029 hectares
2004 to Present -- Construction of the Large Binocular Telescope continues - electrical power line installed. Major tree mortality in spruce-fir forest on the monitored areas due to insect outbreaks. Squirrel numbers decline throughout 2000 and remains low through 2006, with a slight upturn in population numbers in 2002.
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