Africanized Honey Bees - May 23, 2018
Jeff Schalau, Agent, Agriculture & Natural Resources
University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, Yavapai County

Humans have benefitted from honey bees since prehistoric times. They provide honey, pollen, and royal jelly that humans harvest from bee hives. Honey bees also pollinate flowers of many crop plants. One-third of the food Americans eat comes directly from the pollination honey bees and other insects perform. Apis mellifera ligustica is the species of honey bee which has been introduced, bred, and utilized by humans worldwide for centuries. The African subspecies of honey bee is Apis mellifera scutellata and are known for aggressive behavior in defense of their hive. Africanized bees are virtually indistinguishable from European honey bees.

Entomologists believe that the African subspecies developed their aggressive nature through the process of natural selection. African honey bees evolved in a tropical climate with frequent droughts and unpredictable weather. They also have dealt with a wide array of predators including humans. Conversely, European honey bees developed in a colder climate having four distinct seasons, abundant water, and a dependable forage base. In addition, they have been domesticated for many years and were purposely selected to favor a calmer attitude.

Africanized honey bees (AHBs) were introduced Brazil in 1950 to improve honey production in the tropics. They escaped quarantine in 1957, migrated north, and have been in the United States (Texas) since 1990. They were first seen in Arizona in 1993. Since then, many domestic animals and humans have been attacked – sometimes lethally. AHBs have been in Yavapai County since 1997 and have been recorded statewide. Today, any wild honey bee you come in contact should be considered an AHB. Additionally, we have many species of native, solitary bees which are not aggressive and pollinate native plants in addition to some crop plants.

Arizona beekeepers often call them “feral honey bees”, collect them during swarming, re-queen them with a European honey bee queen, and maintain these hives for pollination and honey production. While these re-queened feral colonies can be somewhat more aggressive than European bees, they can be managed for production.

AHBs pose the greatest threat to people who work outdoors: farmers, construction workers, landscapers, yard maintenance workers, and even pest control workers. Like European honey bees, AHBs can sting only once. It is their sheer numbers and aggressive behavior when their hive is threatened that creates a potential threat. While foraging, AHBs are usually not aggressive. Most cases of AHB attacks have been traced back to disturbance of the hive. Sometimes, it is a lawnmower, weed eater, tractor, or other power equipment that sets them off. However, simply being too near a hive can trigger aggressive behavior.

The first sign of a potential attack is often a preliminary defense behavior such as flying at your face or buzzing over your head. This is a signal that you have entered their area and are seen as a threat. If bees become agitated, the most important thing to do is get away as soon as possible. Do not wait for them to calm down, try to retrieve belongings, or wave your arms to get them off you. A bee can fly at speeds from 12 to 15 miles per hour and most healthy humans can outrun them. So, RUN and KEEP RUNNING! AHBs have been known to follow people for more than a quarter mile.

Any covering for your head and face will help you escape. People that have been attacked say the worst part is being stung in the face and eyes. Once this occurs, your vision will be obscured and your chance of escape substantially decreased. If you have nothing else, pull your shirt up over your face. Take refuge in a house, tent, or car as soon as possible. The bees will find any opening, so make sure all possible entrances are sealed. Do not jump into water as the bees will wait for you to surface.

This article is not meant to scare you, only to better inform you and provide some strategies for responding to an attack. More people die of lightning strikes than insect stings. So, while reasonable precautions should be taken, the risk of serious injury or death from AHBs will remain low when compared to other threats present in everyday life. Visit the online edition for additional information (see URL below).

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An Africanized honey bee (left) and a European honey bee on honeycomb. Despite color differences between these two bees, normally they can't be identified by eye (Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service,

Entomologist David Gilley is part of the team investigating the usurpation of European honey bee colonies by swarms of Africanized honey bees. Because queenless colonies are particularly susceptible to usurpation, the team maintains a group of queenless colonies to lure usurpation swarms into their apiary to be studied. Gilley is shown here requeening one of these "bait colonies." (Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service,

Africanized honey bee stingers left behind on gloves after working with them. Each white structure is a venom sac attached to a stinger (Georgia Department of Agriculture,

Additional Resources

Africanized Honey Bees
Utah State University Cooperative Extension

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Arizona Cooperative Extension
Yavapai County
840 Rodeo Dr. #C
Prescott, AZ 86305
(928) 445-6590
Last Updated: May 14, 2018
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