|Program Outcomes for Youth|
Discusses the differences between culture, diversity, and plurality. Authors explain diversity as the recognition of differences, whereas pluralism is an active state, in which activities are designed to expose individual uniqueness to other members in a group. Offers a self-test and suggestions for those attempting to incorporate cultural pluralism into their instruction. Authors suggest ways in which the domains of instructional design, the systematic design of instruction, and the nine events of instruction can create learning environments conducive to cultural sensitivity.
D'Andrea, Michael & Daniels, Judy. (1996). Promoting peace in our schools: Developmental, preventive, and multicultural considerations. The School Counselor, 44(1), p. 55-64.
Cultural diversification is happening at a rapid rate in the United States, and at a time when the authors propose the state of race relations is not good. Because of this, many educators are seeing the need for a more peaceful, respectful atmosphere. The authors suggest ways of incorporating developmental, preventive, and multicultural theories into the environment. Article reviews a framework of three components: traditional conflict resolution intervention strategies, developing competencies necessary for life, to prevent conflicts from initializing, and a clearly defined multicultural component. This takes into account between-group and within-group differences, and uses the Minority Identity Development (MID) model to understand these inequalities.
Favazza, Paddy C. & Odom, Samuel L. (1997). Promoting positive attitudes of kindergarten-age children toward people with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 63(3), p. 405-418.
The authors suggest that children form attitudes about people with disabilities as early as four or five ears of age, which are often negative or rejecting. Three fundamental influences on attitude formation include indirect experiences, direct experiences, and the social group. They conducted a study that examined the effects of these fundamental influences on the attitudes of kindergarten-age children toward people with disabilities. At pretest, all children had low levels of acceptance of people with disabilities. At posttest, significant increases in acceptance levels were seen only in the high-contact group. Authors concluded this program of including direct contacts, related books, and discussion appears to be an effective strategy for promoting acceptance in young children of people with disabilities. Study uses such measures as the Acceptance Scale for Kindergartners, the Inventory of Disability Representation, and Opinions Relative to Mainstreaming.
Fuchs, Lawrence H. (1990). The American Kaleidoscope: Race, Ethnicity, and the Civic Culture. Wesleyan University Press.
Fuchs describes diversity as a kaleidoscope in motion, with new possibilities emerging at every turn. These possibilities are endless and multifaceted, and the changing patterns that are revealed from the same set of glass fragments create different shapes with every turn. The cultural kaleidoscope is much like this, with the great variety of ethnic groups throughout the country interacting with each other in similar ways. This idea suggests that cultures change through their interaction and yet maintain their original basic characteristics.
Higginbotham, Elizabeth. (1996). Getting all students to listen: Analyzing and coping with student resistance. American Behavioral Scientist 40(2), p. 203-211.
The recent inclusion of classroom material in higher education that addresses diversity and multiculturalism has met resistance among some students. This resistance is seen in three types: vocal, silent, and absent. Discusses teaching techniques to respond to this resistance without defeating the purpose of exploring the new subject matter and discouraging other students' interest in it. Author recommends examining the types of power and inequality present in the classrooms, and using it to create a learning atmosphere that is safe for exploring these issues.
Kincaid, Tanna M. & Horner, Erin R. (1997). Designing, developing, and implementing diversity training: Guidelines for practitioners. Educational Technology, 37(2), p. 19-26.
The success of a diversity program in the workplace is based on diversity being positioned as a process that is aligned with the mission of the organization. Foundations must be made to do so, to assess the cultural climate, and to review policies and procedures. Once this base is completed, diversity training can be used to help employees become aware of their differences. Seven guidelines are introduced to increase diversity through training. If this systematic approach is followed, the authors challenge that the successful employment of diversity will work for the benefit of the organization, all individuals within it, and the society around it.
Loden, M., & Rosener, J. (1991). Workforce America!: Managing Employee Diversity as a Vital Resource. Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin.
These authors propose that organizations throughout America are not yet ready to face the challenges and potential opportunities created by employee diversity in the American workplace. They feel that to prosper in the future, American workplaces must value, understand, and better utilize the diversity in business, education, government, and society. People must learn to manage employee diversity as a vital resource. This book is divided into three parts, the first of which focuses on raising awareness of increased employee diversity. The second part discusses specific workplace issues that must be recognized and addressed within each organization if diversity is to become a productive asset to them. Part III looks at institutions and their leaders, describing various approaches to valuing and managing diversity. It outlines a three-stage, comprehensive process for organization culture change in support of valuing employee diversity.
Macdonald, Maritza. (1997). Valuing Diversity: an excerpt from Explorations with Young Children, A Curriculum Guide from The Bank Street College of Education. [On-line]. Available: http://www.earlychildhood.com/Articles/index.cfm?FuseAction=Article&A=21
This book excerpt describes diversity as the range of differences among people that must be considered to work with them effectively. It covers such topics as the need to include diversity in early childhood, ideas for incorporating diversity into early childhood, and implementing your own knowledge of diversity into your children's lives. It includes a list of practical applications at the end of the selected work.
Powell, Gary C. (1997). On being a culturally sensitive instructional designer and educator. Educational Technology, 37(2), p. 6-14.
Cultural sensitivity is a term used to describe the ability to view the world from the perspectives of members of other cultures. It is a mind-set that includes not only an awareness of the diversity of the learners, but an appreciation for these differences. Creating a culturally sensitive classroom requires the educator, as well as the instructional designer, to evaluate his/her own culture, and his/her own feelings toward other cultures. Article includes a self-test for educators to evaluate the potential of their own cultural sensitivity. By increasing this potential, the author hopes the educators will prize the diversity in their classroom and see it as an educational, instructional asset.
Powell, Gary C. (1997). Understanding the language of diversity. Educational Technology, 37(2), p. 15-16.
The consistent use of proper terminology is important, especially in discussing topics related to diversity. This author recognizes differences and overlaps between some of the terminology, but sets out definitions for culture, cross cultural awareness/sensitivity, cultural pluralism, and diversity. Differences are also noted between the terms ethnic group and race. Rasmussen, Tina. (1996). ASTD Trainer's Sourcebook: Diversity. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development. Many diversity teaching materials focus on culture or affirmative action training. According to this author, those resources actually reinforce stereotypes rather than overcome them. This is a training manual incorporating leading-edge thinking, tested and used by non-experts-actual people in the workplace who are trying to make valuing diversity training work for them and their organizations. It positions diversity as something that applies to everyone, so it becomes something everyone can care about and support. This manual outlines workshop preparation, guides, materials and content, and includes an appendix of recommended reading on the subject.
Reeves, Thomas C. (1997). An evaluator looks at cultural diversity. Educational Technology, 37(2), p. 27-31.
Value absolutes in product evaluation include ethical, legal, and ecological standards. Evaluators use these standards as ones that must not be violated when evaluating the merit and value of programs and products. The author of this article proposes cultural sensitivity as an addition to that essential list of value absolutes. Article suggests the ultimate goal of product and program design be not to design culturally neutral materials, but to create enriched learning environments, because of the unique values found in the different cultures. Discusses emancipatory evaluation, which requires the evaluator to determine all theoretical perspectives relevant, with special emphasis on traditional minorities. Offers a rating scale for multicultural sensitivity in instructional products.
Robinson, J.S., Bowman, R.P., Ewing, T., Hanna, J., and Lopez-De Fede, A. (1997). Building Cultural Bridges, Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.
This is a curriculum designed to address diversity within a school or other organization by helping students and staff become more skillful in positively relating to those who they perceive as "different." Its goals include increasing multicultural awareness, sensitivities, and skills so that young people are prepared to take positive action with their peers. In doing so, the authors believe students will change their negative attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors about cultural diversity. This incorporates multiple approaches that respect all learning styles.
Sheffield, Caryl J. (1997). Instructional technology for teachers: Preparation for classroom diversity. Educational Technology, 37(2), p. 16-18.
In teaching in a culturally diverse classroom, teachers are expected to develop positive attitudes and behaviors toward the students, understand individual specific learning characteristics these children bring from their culturally different backgrounds, and create, select, and use instructional materials and strategies which facilitate a positive learning environment, accommodating these individual characteristics. Employing a large set of strategies optimizes learning outcomes for all students and an opportunity is created for many kinds of academic achievement. This method of catering to the learning characteristics of diverse classrooms creates a climate in which the students learn to celebrate their diversity.
Wittmer, Joe. (1992).Valuing Diversity and Similarity: Bridging the Gap through Interpersonal Skills. Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media Corporation.
This book presents a step-by-step approach to developing the skills needed
to be a careful listener and more effective speaker. The first section
discusses the science and art of communication and includes chapters on
communicating as connecting with others; behavior and communication; nonverbal
behaviors and interpersonal communication; and multicultural communication.
The second section focuses on cognitive understanding of the culturally
different. This includes chapters based on perspectives and communicative
strategies for working with African Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders,
Cuban Americans, Puerto Ricans, and other Hispanic Americans, Mexican
Americans, and Native Americans. It examines the facilitative model of
communication. An epilogue on this subject discusses skills that can be
learned and an awareness and sensitivity toward others that can be developed
toward being a facilitative communicator.